Massage & Bodywork

November/December 2013

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education CLASSROOM TO CLIENT | PATHOLOGY PERSPECTIVES | BODY AWARENESS | FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY | SOMATIC RESEARCH Temporalis By Christy Cael The temporalis is a broad, fan-shaped muscle that covers the temple. Its fibers originate at the parietal, temporal, and frontal bones, then converge and run deep to the zygomatic arch. The temporalis connects to the mandible at the pointed coronoid process and the slightly anterior portion of the ramus; this attachment gives it leverage to retract the mandible, as well as elevate it. Similar to the gluteus medius muscle of the hip, the fibers of the temporalis run both vertically and horizontally, allowing for variable action on the mandible. Vertical fibers pull the mandible upward toward the maxilla, a movement typically limited by approximation of the teeth. Horizontal fibers—running from the parietal bone (posterior) to the coronoid process of the mandible (anterior)—pull the mandible back toward the cranium, thus retracting the mandible. The temporalis works with the pterygoid and masseter muscles during chewing. Together, they create the movements necessary for manipulating food. The complexity (and, often, asymmetry) of motions required for chewing is made possible by specific architecture in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). This synovial joint is a modified hinge that contains an articular disc, and the flexible disc allows additional side-to-side motions (lateral flexion) and multidirectional mobility for asymmetrical motions typical during chewing. A variety of issues may lead to dysfunction in the TMJ. Structural issues such as malocclusion (misalignment between upper and lower teeth) and osteoarthritis are not uncommon, but the most common cause of TMJ pain is myofascial dysfunction in the muscles involved in chewing— temporalis, masseter, and pterygoid muscles. TEMPORALIS Attachments • Origin: Temporal fossa • nsertion: Coronoid process and anterior border I of the ramus of the mandible Actions • Elevates the mandible • Retracts the mandible Innervation • Trigeminal nerve See what benefits await you. 51

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