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F r e e m u s i c d o w n l o a d s f o r C e r t i f i e d m e m b e r s : w w w. a b m p . c o m / g o / c e r t i f i e d c e n t r a l 43 FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY education Platysma By Christy Cael The platysma is the most superficial muscle of the anterior neck, and extends from the mandible and fascia of the face. Its origin is not bony; rather, it is attached to the fascia of the chest and the anterior shoulder girdle. This muscle is one of several mimetic muscles, or muscles responsible for facial expression. Each of these muscles is controlled by the facial nerve, with the platysma specifically controlled by the deep cervical portion. The platysma is a flat, continuous sheet of muscle (generally termed a panniculus muscle). Panniculus muscles are found in many animals, and function to move areas of skin, a movement useful in shaking off flies, raising hair, and shivering. In humans, the platysma is a vestigial muscle made redundant by the broad range of the upper extremities, which allows the hand to reach nearly all parts of the body. While the platysma is less functional in flicking flies, it is very active in creating specific human facial expressions. This muscle draws the lower lip downward and laterally while creating ridges or wrinkles in the skin of the neck and chest. When combined with different movements of the forehead, eyes, and nose, this action characterizes the facial expressions of stress or anger. Prolonged periods of deep concentration or stress may create tension and pain in the platysma. This tension may be exacerbated PLATYSMA Attachments • Origin: Fascia of superior pectoralis major and deltoid muscles • Insertion: Inferior angle of the mandible Actions • Depresses the mandible • Draws the lower lip and angle of the mouth downward • Tenses skin of the anterior neck and chest Innervation • Facial nerve

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