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L i s te n to T h e A B M P Po d c a s t a t a b m m /p o d c a s t s o r w h e reve r yo u a cce s s yo u r favo r i te p o d c a s t s 37 Ilium Shaft of femur Sacrum Ischiofemoral ligament Ischium Lesser trochanter Greater trochanter Posterior View The pubofemoral ligament joins the superior pubic rami and the intertrochanteric line of the femur. It is shaped like a triangle and restricts both hip abduction and extension and reinforces the joint capsule anteriorly and inferiorly. The ischiofemoral ligament joins the body of the ischium and the greater trochanter of the femur. It posteriorly reinforces the joint capsule and has a spiral orientation allowing it to restrict hip flexion, adduction, and medial rotation. Mechanics Because the coxal joint is a ball-and-socket synovial joint, movement in all three planes is possible, including hip flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, medial rotation, and lateral rotation. This is also true of the glenohumeral joint, but because the hip functions as a weight-bearing structure and is anatomically significantly more stable, there is less range of motion possible at the hip compared to the shoulder. Another parallel between the hip and shoulder is the presence of several deep muscles that help steer and dynamically stabilize the joint. The rotator cuff muscles, including the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis, surround the head of the humerus and control dynamic joint mechanics in the shoulder. Deep in the hip, the piriformis, superior gemellus, inferior gemellus, obturator internus, obturator externus, and quadratus femoris muscles serve a similar function. These are postural muscles and therefore functionally better suited for endurance activity and aerobic metabolism. Moving superficially, a multitude of large, prime mover muscles cross and affect the hip, including the psoas, iliacus, rectus femoris, tensor fasciae latae, adductor longus and brevis, sartorius, and pectineus anteriorly; adductor magnus and gracilis medially; and the hamstrings and gluteals posteriorly, with the gluteus maximus extending laterally to the greater trochanter Illiacus Psoas Tensor fasciae latae Sartorius Pectineus Adductor longus Gracilis Rectus femoris Illiotibial band Vastus lateralis Vastus medialis Anterior View

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